Wednesday, June 24, 2020

Arguments for and Against Essay Example Pdf - Free Essay Example

Corporate Social Responsibility Defined Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is when a corporation exceeds statutory business standards (Johnson and Scholes 2008). CSR policies are relevant because they state what a company intends to achieve, in addition, to its statutory obligations. A corporation has to comply with legal standards such as employment contracts. However, a company can exceed those principles if it chooses to pay a living wage rather than the minimum wage (Bloomer 2014). Introduction to the Critical Discussion The discussion will examine a traditional criticism of corporate social responsibility through the work of Friedman. This is a view which proponents of CSR will need to refute. The essay will then discuss how social and environmental responsibility can be reconciled, with profitability, using the work of Porter. The example of Hewlett Packard is discussed at length. This is because its policies emphasise how a multi-national company can achieve both environmental and social responsibility together with corporate profitability. The work of Handy is then considered. This argues that companies should have corporate objectives which are broader than just profitability and consider the purpose of the business. Friedmans View of Corporate Social Responsibility Friedmans view is a non-interventionist or laissez-faire vision of commerce. In his view business should aim to earn money while complying with the basic rules of the society such as paying taxes (Friedman 1970:1). It assumes that consumers are sovereign and are able to significantly influence corporate decision-making. This view of commercial organisations underplays the significance of consumer market failure. It is assumed that consumers can take their business elsewhere as Friedman believed that consumers can transfer their business to other producers (Friedman 1970). However, this is not possible if the consumer is unable to pay for another competitor firms products. This is the case if a consumer were unable to pay for the safety features, offered by a car manufacturer such as Volvo, as discussed below. To summarise, socially responsible polices, can be seen as unrealistic if consumers are unwilling to pay for them. Friedman argued that socially responsible business polici es, such as promoting equality, can harm company performance. For example, Ben and Jerrys adopted a payment scheme where the highest paid employee could only earn no more than five times the income of the lowest paid firm employee (Barney and Hesterly 2010:7). This payment scheme made it difficult to recruit senior managerial talent to make sure that the company grew and remained profitable (Barney and Hesterly 2010). A More Progressive View of Corporate Social Responsibility There is an increasingly an expectation that companies will contribute to society to a greater extent than when Friedman was writing in the early 1970s. Companies operate in a social environment as well as an economic environment (Grant 2008). A firms ability to survive depends upon its acceptability among consumers who give the firm social legitimacy (Grant 2008:446). Examples of social awareness, such as a demand for safer cars, suggest that companies are wise to respond to consumer concerns (Grant 2008).Corporations have come under increasing pressure to contribute to the societies in which they operate and to adopt more socially responsible business practices (Christodoulou and Patel 2013:467). The corporate setting of voluntary objectives can be seen as an adequate response to the needs of society. Companies can set voluntary standards: to reduce the extent to which their actions cause negative externalities or side-effects (Barney and Hesterly 2010). For example, if a car manufacturer builds a car with a large number of safety features which more than comply with legal requirements. Volvo has promoted the benefits of a relatively safe car which adds value that the customer is willing to pay a premium for (Thompson and Martin 2005:95). However, this approach can also be seen as merely serving a premium segment of the market, rather than being particularly socially responsible. In this case, Volvo is taking a marketing position which conforms to sales objectives while offering better safety to the motorist (Johnson and Scholes 2008). Corporate social responsibility is only conforming to financial requirements. Porters View on Corporate Social Responsibility and the Environment The concept of CSR is useful as it can help reconcile the financial needs of business with say the safety needs of society. Porter argues that it is a mistake for business to see environmental legislation as a threat to be resisted (Porter and van de Linde 1995). Rather, socially responsible businesses can view regulation in a positive manner; that environmental regulation can be built upon to utilise resources more effectively. It is argued, that there are costs incurred with the elimination of environmental problems but that these are outweighed by the benefits, including financial savings and improvements to product quality (Thompson and Martin 2005). Therefore, it is possible for corporations to be socially responsible without compromising the financial status of the organisation. Porters argument is useful. It has allowed thoughtful companies, such as Hewlett Packard, to reconcile investment in environmental initiatives with corporate profitability. The Hewlett Packard Report Hewlett Packard has a strong reputation in terms of corporate social responsibility (thecro.com 2010). The companys CSR policies are detailed and indicate a high level of social responsibility. For example, the company presents environmental information, in a proactive manner, with evidence of wanting to improve recycling programmes. It aims to improve environmental programs to reduce the waste from its production operations (Hewlett Packard 2011). Through these environmental initiatives, the company can help reduce business costs. Hewlett Packards CSR report discusses how it aims to extract value from products which are at the end of their product life (Hewlett Packard 2011). An example is the companys commitment to re-manufacture its printer cartridges so that they can be used again. The company is attempting to promote a strong corporate responsibility through proactive environmental investment. Hewlett Packard has demonstrated strong social responsibility policies. This sugg ests that such policies can be implemented on a large scale. The company has provided a significant amount of disclosure on a wide range of corporate areas from the environment to human resource management. The detail provided by Hewlett Packard is superior to other companies given that online trade publications have viewed Hewlett Packards performance favourably (thecro.com 2013). Given that Hewlett Packard was assessed favourably then the information provided, in its CSR report, can be interpreted as thorough and accurate. The company attempts to improve the wider business community with measures to develop its external supply chain. The company aims for strong standards of behaviour outside the companys core business. This suggests that it is attempting to improve working relationships with its component suppliers (Hewlett Packard 2011). Hewlett Packards CSR document conveys that the company is enabling social responsibility to be addressed. The company suggests that it has a grievance procedure so that different stakeholders can report social or ethical problems to senior management (Hewlett Packard 2011). The company is clearly investing in a responsible approach as it describes legal observance as an absolute minimum which it expects of different stakeholders (Hewlett Packard 2011:82). They argue that their decision making achieves better employment standards, than laws in the different countries in which the company operates (Hewlett Packard 2011). Concerns over Hewlett Packards Stated Policies Hewlett Packard attempts to make the company accountable, to external industry scrutiny. Procedures have been outlined which should make sure that ethical labour standards are achieved (Hewlett Packard 2011). The concern is that ethical objectives could be difficult to implement. There does not appear to be a specific example of how this guidance statement could be delivered in practice. However, there is a well structured diagram which outlines how the company will provide a governance structure so that the company can comply with ethical challenges (Hewlett Packard 2011:82). Some of Hewlett Packards environmental statements can be interpreted as platitudes. The company claims that that it wants to conserve more resources than it consumes (Hewlett Packard 2011). The concern is that it is easy to provide such statements. However, it is more difficult to assess how they are going to conserve more than they consume. This is because environmentally acceptable re-manufacturing progr ammes will still require energy consumption despite the conservation of the materials. Hewlett Packard may have worse polices, in practice, than those conveyed by its report. This is because suppliers could be forced to comply with the companys standards. There are power relationships between dominant multi-national companies, such as Hewlett Packard, and their suppliers (Locke et. al. 2012). The international sourcing of computer components has left suppliers vulnerable to the dominant buying policies at Hewlett Packard (Wetherly et. al. 2011). These power relationships will tend to be overlooked, in corporate social responsibility reports, because companies will want to portray themselves in a favourable light. Corporate social responsibility policies have been criticised. The development of CSR policies have been difficult to implement for many firms (Birchall and Cook 2006). However, these criticisms should, generally, not be directed at Hewlett Packard due to the level of detail contained in its CSR report. Arguably, they have made an honest corporate attempt to contribute to society (Porter and Kramer 2002). The report goes beyond the legal compliance advocated by Friedman. The detail provided is of a superior standard when compared to a minimum level of legal compliance. The Business and Ethical Concepts of Handy The work of Handy, arguably, goes beyond the corporate responsibility work of writers such as Porter. This is because Handy emphasises the importance of mission statements and the purpose of the organisation. Handy argues that the purpose of a business . . . is not to make a profit, full stop. It is to make a profit so that the business can do something more or better. That something becomes the real justification for the business (Sage Publications 2015:15). Handy argues that a firms profit should be the means to a larger end (Sage Publications 2015). There are companies which adhere to a deeper purpose than merely profit. Tradecraft, in the UK, would be a good example as the companys purpose is to operate life-changing development projects (Traidcraft 2015). However, Traidcraft operates in a niche area of the retail market where affluent consumers, who are willing to pay higher prices, contribute to international development. Therefore Handys ideas may have limited application to businesses throughout the whole of the United Kingdom. However, his ideas are useful where they can be applied. Tradecrafts mission moves beyond immediate stakeholders, such as owners and clearly considers the needs of the broader society (Dess et. al. 2010). The company is an excellent example of a company which incorporates social and environmental, as well as financial factors, into its decision making (Dess et. al. 2010). The challenge for proponents of social responsibility is that many retailers only undertake social and environmental policies which do not damage their sales and profits. Many retailers will concentrate on environmental responsibility in their stores, where they can achieve resource efficiency targets (Jones et. al. 2009). Many retailers social responsibilities are guided by what they can achieve within their financial imperatives (Jones et. al. 2009). However, such corporate policies could lead to accusations of greenwashing. In other words, that the re tailers commitment to the environment is limited and that social responsibility reports can play a public relations role rather than a social responsibility role. Many firms are engaging in greenwashing to mislead consumers about the extent of their environmental activities (Delmas and Burbano 2011). Conclusion There is evidence of improvements to companies social responsibility polices. This is because firms have realised that it is financially prudent to use environment resources wisely. It is also necessary for business to be sustainable and to invest in good employment practices and proper labour standards. However, there is a concern that corporate social responsibility is limited by what the consumer is willing, or able, to pay for more ethical approaches. There are few examples of businesses which are willing to adopt socially responsible policies which affect their profitability. Ben and Jerrys is one example before its takeover by Unilever. References Barney, J. and Hesterly, W., (2010), Strategic Management and Competitive Advantage: Concepts and Cases, Third Edition, Boston: Prentice Hall Burchell, J. and Cook, J. (2006), Confronting the corporate citizen: Shaping the discourse of corporate social responsibility, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, Vol. 26, No. 3/4, 2006, p. 121-137 Bloomer, E. (2014), Local action on health inequalities: Health inequalities and the living wage, Public Health England. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/357407/Review6_Living_wage_health_inequalities.pdf Christodoulou, I and Patel, Z. (2013), Strategic Perspectives, Westminster Business School, University of Westminster, New York: McGraw Hill Dess, G., Lumpkin G. and Eisner, A. (2010), Strategic Management: Creating Competitive Advantages, Fourth Edition, Boston: McGraw Hill Delmas, M. and Burbano, V. (2011), The Drivers of Greenwashing, UCLA, California Manag ement Review. Retrieved from https://www.ioe.ucla.edu/media/files/Delmas-Burbano-CMR-2011-gd-ldh.pdf Friedman, M. (1970), The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits, The New York Times Magazine, September 13, 1970. Retrieved from https://www.umich.edu/~thecore/doc/Friedman.pdf Grant, R. (2008), Contemporary Strategy Analysis, Sixth Edition, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Hewlett Packard, (2011), HP 2011 Global Citizenship Report. Retrieved from https://www8.hp.com/us/en/pdf/hp_fy11_gcr_tcm_245_1357670.pdf Johnson G. and Scholes, K., (2008), Exploring Corporate Strategy: Eighth Edition, Harlow: Pearson Education Jones, P., Comfort, D. and Hillier, D. (2009), Marketing Sustainable Consumption within Stores: A Case Study of the UKs Leading Food Retailers, Sustainability 2009, 1, 815-826. Retrieved from https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/1/4/815 Locke, R, Distelhorst ,G., Pal, T. and Hiram M. S., Production Goes Global, Standards Stay Local: Private Labor Regulation in the Global Electronics Industry, Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1978908 Porter, M. and Kramer M., (2002), The Competitive Advantage of Corporate Philanthropy, Harvard Business Review, December 2002. , Retrieved from https://www.expert2business.com/itson/Porter%20HBR%20Corporate%20philantropy.pdf Porter, M. and van de Linde, C. (1995), Towards a New Conception of the Environment-Competitiveness Relationship, The Journal Of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 9, No. 4. Retrieved from https://www.conservationeducation.org/uploads/6/2/0/1/6201942/porter_-_environment__competitiveness_1995.pdf Sage Publications (2014), What is CSR. Retrieved from https://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/34698_Chapter1.pdf Thecro.com, (2010), CRs 100 Best Corporate Citizens 2010. Retrieved from https://www.thecro.com/files/CR100Best.pdf Thompson, J. and Martin, F. (2005), Strategic Management: Awareness and Change, Fifth Edition, London: Thomson Lear ning Traidcraft, (2015), Traidcraft: Fighting Poverty Through Trade. Retrieved from https://www.traidcraft.co.uk/ Wetherly, P. and Otter, D. (2011), The Business Environment: Themes and Issues, Second Edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

College Essay Examples of Cause and Solution Essay Samples

College Essay Examples of Cause and Solution Essay SamplesIn order to write a cause and solution essay, it is crucial that you are prepared with cause and solution essay samples. This is true because most college professors do not want to hear about 'bad' arguments or solutions. They want you to express yourself in a thoughtful manner and do so using words that have meaning to them. Make sure that you include the right words to support your cause and your solution so that your essay doesn't come across as a knee-jerk reaction or a formulaic argument.One common cause and solution essay sample are when you say, 'My neighbor has had issues with his carpets for years, but he managed to restore it back to its original beauty.' This is not an unusual statement, but you will find that there are many reasons why your neighbor may have decided to take this route. Your purpose in writing a cause and solution essay is to let the professor know that you have an accurate idea of the situation so that he or she can help you clarify the cause.If you're facing problems that you are not sure how to solve, and you feel like you are doing it all wrong, writing a cause and solution essay would be an excellent idea. Here's a list of reasons why you would want to write one:First, it shows that you are not afraid to take a stand on a significant cause. You are willing to make an effort to understand and then make a choice on a solution that will make a positive impact on both parties involved. Most professors see cause and solution essays as a way to show that you have thought things through, which will make a big difference in the way you are viewed in class.Second, you will be the one making the decision and knowing that it will lead to the best outcome possible. Students will be able to look at your essay and see the results of your hard work. As they look at your essay, they will be able to see what you learned and see how you reached your final conclusion.Third, writing a cause and solution essay shows that you understand that you can never please everyone. It shows that you are willing to compromise and accept that you will not always be perfect. It shows that you have a strong moral compass and are willing to face any consequences if the choice is a bad one.In order to avoid future problems, you should first know how to handle a problem situation. Writing a cause and solution essay will show that you are taking steps to prepare yourself and help you move forward. Then, you can plan out your writing and start tackling your college course.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Unit 40 Tour Operations Management - 997 Words

UNIT 40: TOUR OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Get assignment help for this unit at assignmenthelpuk@yahoo.com LO1 Understand the tour operators industry within the travel and tourism sector Tour operators: as defined by EU Package Travel Directive; different types of tour operators including outbound operators, domestic operators, incoming operators, specialist operators, direct sell operators Industry: identification of major tour operators including their origins, ownership, market segments, competition, identification of specific operators within each category; scale eg number of passengers carried, market share, turnover; products and services to meet different markets; vertical and horizontal integration in leading operators; impact of†¦show more content†¦This unit maps to the following Management NVQ units: B1: Develop and implement operational plans for your area of responsibility B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates F4: Develop and review a framework for marketing. Essential requirements The assignments must encourage learners toShow MoreRelatedHotel Continental978 Words   |  4 PagesReyvs Firmalino Hotel Continental I. Point of View Mr. Oscar Mendoza, Owner, Triumph Tours II. Major Problem What is the best strategy for Triumph Tours to effectively manage the hotel accommodation of their clients especially during peak season? III. Case Facts Strengths: - High demand for Triumph Tours services (given that they can provide 40% of Hotel Continental’s annual capacity utilization) - Experienced in operating a travel agency Read Morehnt travel tourism3075 Words   |  13 PagesBTEC National Level 3 Travel and Tourism 2010 13 Unit 13: Tour Operations Unit 13 Tour Operations Unit 13 Overview 10 Credits Tour operators play a very important role in travel and tourism, by arranging the package holidays that are such an important feature of life in the 21st century. 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Stakeholders have hired this writer to introduce a perimeter protection plan conveying the best practices that integrate with the contiguous existing Marina Cove 1. Loss Implications. Prior to implementing a perimeter protection plan, proper determination of the objectives of the organization is imperative. The security manager must characterize and understand the facility and its operations. 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E. fixed cost per unit and product cost per unit. Answer: B LO: 1 Type: RC 4. Which of the following would produce the largest increase in the contribution margin per unit? A. A 7% increase in selling price. B. ARead MoreAGR packet6261 Words   |  26 PagesHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and not be pregnant, per AR 40-501 and AR 600-110. 2. Must meet body composition/weight control standards prescribed by AR 600-9. 3. Must meet the medical fitness standards for retention per Chapter 3, AR 40-501. When appropriate, Soldier must also meet the medical fitness standards for flying duty per Chapter 4, AR 40-501, or the medical fitness standards for miscellaneous purposes per Chapter 5, AR 40-501. If Soldier has PULHES numerical indicators of P3 or P4,

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Social Deviance A Sociological Perspective On Deviant...

Hi folks, here are my thoughts! Social deviance is the study of the violation of cultural norms in either formal or informal contexts. Social deviance is a phenomenon that has existed in all societies with norms. Sociological theories of deviance are those that use social context and social pressures to explain deviance. You’ll find these in your readings for this week. Think of the diagram for a functionalist approach to deviance: Great post! You did a nice job defining deviance as a whole. A theory closely associated with this term is labeling theory. Labeling theory is one of the most important approaches to understanding deviant and criminal behavior within sociology. Labeling theory begins with the assumption that no act is intrinsically criminal. Definitions of criminality are established by those in power through the formulation of laws and the interpretation of those laws by police, courts, and correctional institutions. Deviance is therefore not a set of characteristics of individuals or groups, but rather it is a process of interaction between deviants and non-deviants and the context in which criminality is being interpreted. Again great post! Nice post! Those who represent forces of law and order and those who enforce the boundaries of proper behavior, such as the police, court officials, experts, and school authorities, provide the main source of labeling. By applying labels to people (in our case smokers and non smokers), and in the process creatingShow MoreRelatedThe Theory Of Body Types, And The Y Chromosome Theory1194 Words   |  5 Pages100 - Introduction to Sociology March 26, 2016 Deviance Many different theories exist regarding deviance. Biological, psychological, and sociological perspectives have applied their different thought processes to produce many theories. Some of these ideas have been discredited, however some remain significant today. 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Slept in late, had a lot of errands to run, lost track of time. At least I’m grateful that the weather is nice and the traffic is sparse today, but this doesn’t eliminate the fact that I’m not going to be on time for class. I am trying to stay relaxed in this situation but little do you know, I really hate running late for eve rything. It’sRead MoreThe Concept of Sociological Perspective of Deviance Essays1127 Words   |  5 PagesThe concept of Sociological Perspective of Deviance also known as â€Å"rule-breaking† behavior or â€Å"counter culture† can be defined as culture norms, values, and morals which shape the social acceptance of individuals or group through their actions or â€Å"unmoral or illegal† behavior. In order to gain a better understanding of Sociological Perspective of Deviance it is important to understand the broad consensus of behavior and its place in society. 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I will use different scholarly sources to compare and review different positions in the theories used as they relate toRead MoreSociology and Deviance Essay2077 Words   |  9 Pagesâ€Å"Becoming a deviant involves a social process of definition†. The purpose of this essay is to show how this sociological perspective can assist in understanding drug taking in society. In the essay I will discuss the notion of deviance and will demonstrate that people do not become deviants on the strength of their behaviour alone, but by the sanctions of a society whose norms that the offender has deemed to have violated. I will examine approaches to deviance through biological, psychologicalRead MoreLimitations of theor ies of sociology of deviance2475 Words   |  10 PagesTheories of Deviance are limited in their ability to explain deviant acts if one adopts the view that these theories are universal. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Formula for Freedom Essay - 1078 Words

The nation we live in cannot pretend to be perfect nor will it ever be; wars, both violent and silent, are fought to form the laws, places, and people we know. The solutions that are forever written down in history books are composed of a great deal of persuasion. With segregation, those who desire equal rights choose this method to attempt a revolution. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. eventually becomes one of the most well-known activists for the desegregation of the South. King uses logos in â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail† along with an honest, influential, and knowledgeable tone to clarify the reasons behind his actions that put him in jail in Birmingham. King demonstrates honesty in his words to the clergymen by having no secrets about his†¦show more content†¦King tells the clergymen quite frankly how he expected to be supported by white religious groups, but disappointment is the result. He feels that the white church should be a strong ally, but he is clearly proven wrong. The church sits silently on the sidelines while injustice ensues. The silence brings King to ask himself, as he sees the beautiful churches of the south, â€Å"Who is their God?† (139). Dr. King proves influential to a number of people who believe in his argument for equal rights for all citizens. Instead of only talking about trying to change what is going on in Birmingham, he takes action. King is not afraid to face imprisonment for standing up for what is right. When direct action becomes necessary and he is called on, he follows through with his promise. He knows what steps to take in nonviolent protest in order to be effective. King addresses the comment that his actions were untimely by telling the clergymen that black people â€Å"have waited more than 340 years for their constitutional God-given rights† (133). He tries to negotiate first, but when agreements are made, they are not followed through. After no action is taken, he decides on direct action, which he put off for some time due to the mayoral elections of Birmingham. King even explains to the clergymen how it feels to be treated as black people: [W]hen you are humiliated day in and day out by nagging signs reading ‘white’ and ‘colored’; when your first name becomes ‘nigger,’ yourShow MoreRelatedAnyone or anything that is rational possesses will, whether it is a human being or a field mouse.900 Words   |  4 PagesAnyone or anything that is rational possesses will, whether it is a human being or a field mouse. Freedom is the property that this causality has. Thus, a free will can be defined as a will that can act causally without being caused by external sources. Any action not based on a form of law would be seen as groundless and unjustified and we then would not be able to say our actions were the result of our own will. Kant adds to this point by saying the laws we base our actions upon must be self-imposedRead MoreKant’s Argugument for the Existance of Supreme Moral Law1639 Words   |  7 Pagesitself determined by any other law. Kant offers three formulas of the categorical imperative in section II, and it is the third formulation, which requires us to think of ourselves as legislating universal law in a kingdom of ends, that emphasizes the importance of autonomy. It is this concept of autonomy, or freedom of the will, that will be crucial for Kant in deriving the existence of the categorical imperative in section III, and thus the Formula of Autonomy deserves a clear explanation first. TheRead MoreFree Bangladesh From The Exploitation Of Pakistan Essay1619 Words   |  7 PagesTo free Bangladesh from the exploitation of Pakistan, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, President of the Awami League declared Six-Point Formula on 13th February, 1966 when he failed to declare in the conference of opposition held in Lahore. The six clauses were the reflector of independence of the Bangladeshi people. Freedom of habitation, eating, clothing all these basic needs were assured to be provided by the clauses. So people of East Pakistan supported this from their heart. The six clauses were: ClauseRead MoreFreedom: much like love is essential to life, a right given to all creatures as soon as they take800 Words   |  4 PagesFreedom: much like love is essential to life, a right given to all creatures as soon as they take their first breath, and most importantly; freedom, much like love, will always prevail. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. thoroughly understood the symbiotic relationship that freedom and love had on equality. 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The System Development Life Cycle And The Risk Management...

A Comparison of the System Development Life Cycle and the Risk Management Framework The System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) and the Risk Management Framework (RMF) are both processes that are critical to the overall function of an information system, however many project managers and system developers working with the SDLC regularly neglect to incorporate the RMF steps into the development of information systems. This lack of planning and foresight often has unexpected financial impacts, or worse, adverse security effects to an organization later on. Is it possible these individuals overlook the RMF because it is difficult to follow or does not align well with the SDLC? What is the purpose of, and the steps involved with each of these†¦show more content†¦During SDLC phase one, the initiation phase, â€Å"the need for a system is expressed and the purpose of the system is documented† (NIST, 2008). Some of the expected outcomes from this phase would be a project plan and schedule; system performance specifications outlining the operational requirements, system design documents, and a document that defines roles and responsibilities. The corresponding RMF step, security categorization, establishes the foundation for security standardization among information systems and provides a vital step towards integrating security into the information system (NIST, 2008). During this step, the type(s) of information processed by the information system are identified and the information system is categorized to determine the level of protection requirements to put in place. Some of the expected outputs of this step include a security project plan and schedule, documented system boundary, the system categorization, and the security roles and responsibilities. These two process steps are very similar except the focus of RMF is on information security related functions. In some cases, SDLC produces the expected outputs that RMF requires, and the security profes sionals only require a copy of the documentation for their records. For example, the system design document often depicts the system boundary. The reason this step is so critical is that itShow MoreRelatedSoftware Engineering Frameworks And Methodologies1528 Words   |  7 PagesEngineering Term Paper on Software Engineering Frameworks and Methodologies By Damancharla Harini 1. Introduction: Describing software engineering can be a quite challenging task based on the purpose of the definition and the anticipated beneficiaries. 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Confederate States Of America Essay Example For Students

Confederate States Of America Essay Dont kneel to me. You must kneel to God only, and thank him for the liberty you will enjoy hereafter (Brinkley 414). President Abraham Lincoln spoke these words to a former slave that kneeled before him while walking the streets of the abandoned Confederate capitol of Richmond in 1865. Although there are several different questions of why the North won the Civil War, factors involving manpower, economy, military tactics and leadership, and presidential leadership, are all parts of a puzzle historians have tried to put together for years. I believe that these four factors should prove to be the most powerful reasons for the Unions destruction of the Confederate States of America. The presidential leadership of Lincoln will be revealed as the major influence over the other three factors. According to Robert Krick, an interviewee of Carl Zebrowskis article Why the South Lost the Civil War, the basic problem was numbers. Give Abraham Lincoln seven million men and give Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee twenty-one million, cognitive dissonance doesnt matter, European recognition doesnt matter, the Emancipation Proclamation and its ripple effect dont matter. Twenty-one to seven is a very different thing then seven to twenty-one (Zebrowski 223). Despite the Norths enormous population advantage over the South during the Civil War, other wars proved that size doesnt matter. For example, the Colonists success in the American Revolution proved to Great Britain that America was an insignificant, but a successful opponent. While Northern superiority in numbers and resources was a necessary condition for Union Victory, it is not a sufficient explanation for that victory, says James McPherson (Zebrowski 224). When looking at economic factors in the Civil War, we find that the war had a devastating effect on the South and a converse effect on the North. Because of the Northern blockade and the disconnection of Southern farmers from markets in the North, sales of cotton became nearly impossible. In the North, the war produced the same suffering as in the South, but it also produced prosperity and economic growth by giving a major stimulus to both industry and agriculture, says Brinkley (Brinkley 384). Since all Southern products were out of reach for Northern Americans, the North enacted a completely nationalistic program to promote economic development.According to Richard N. Current author of God and the Strongest Battalions, in cotton, the South had a cash crop of great value, and yet, in the midst of war, Southerners reduced their planting, burned the bales they had on hand, and discouraged shipments abroad (Current 24-25). Furthermore, drafting of Southern slaves robbed cotton farms and industries of male work. In opposition to burning the cotton, the Vic e- President of the Confederacy, Alexander H. Stephens, proposed to gain profit by selling cotton in Europe, but by the time the idea had actually fallen into place the Northern blockade had already become too tight. Currrent explains that Not until the third year of the war, however, did the government take complete control of cotton exports and push them with determination. If this program had been taken earlier, probably Confederate finances could have been made much stronger then they became (Current 27). Fortunately for the North it was much too late for this experiment to show any signs of its success. Between the North and the South, the North simply had the upper hand when it came to raising revenue for the war. Of the Confederacys income, to October 1864, almost 60 per cent was derived from the issue of paper money, about 30 per cent from the sale of bonds, and less than 5 per cent from taxation (the remaining 5 per cent arising from miscellaneous sources). Of the Unions in come, by contrast, 13 per cent was raised by paper money, 62 per cent by bonds, and 21 per cent by taxes (and 4 per cent by other means) (Current 27). Unlike the Union, which relied mostly on bonds and taxation for revenue, the Confederates relied mostly on its paper currency. The Confederate government literally flushed itself into the worst economic inflation America has seen since the American Revolution. When dealing with the military issues of the Civil War, the army of the North